Driven by the continued growth in demand for catfish, catfish farming is currently a very profitable business in Nigeria. What does it take to start your own catfish farm in Nigeria? To establish a profitable fish farming business in Nigeria, you must pass certain procedures.

What Size You Will Start

I don’t know your plan or who you are, but I’m sure you will. For example, if you are an employee and want to start a small business or you have a small amount of capital, you might use a fish tank as your pond to start a backyard catfish farm. However, if you plan to use catfish farming as a real-time business, you need to consider having a concrete or earthen catfish pond.

Market Analysis

Since your goal is to make money, you must investigate the level of demand for catfish in your area. If you plan to locate your catfish farm in other places other than your current environment, you must go to the market you expect and do some market research.

Try to find the average market price of a catfish, the level of demand, and the best-selling season for the catfish. One very important thing to note is that your fish needs a ready market. Supermarkets, hotels, restaurants are all places you should go to. Fish are not a durable product that can be stored, they can only be sold as fresh livestock products. If there is no ready market, you may have to raise more adult fish in your pond. You still need to continue to feed them, and they should be sold, which is reducing your profits.

Therefore, before investing in catfish production, be sure to conduct proper research on the markets around you.

Know More about Your Competitors

How are they doing? How much market demand do they meet? Which parts of your market have not been served? Is there a way to attract more fish retailers to your farm? Can you reduce the cost of production for your farm so that it can be sold at a competitive price in the market? Can you produce your own catfish feed to further reduce production costs?

All these factors will be the key to your successful catfish farming in Nigeria.

Machines for Fish Farms & Fish Feed Making

With a fish feed extruder, you can use cheap local raw materials to produce high-quality feed and reduce feed costs.

Land for Catfish Farming

This point is very important. One must acquire at least half of the land in a suitable location. This means that you must consider good roads, close to the market and labor. If the land is already available, then we will divide it into: pond location, farmhouse location, water supply location and drainage facility location.

Water Supply Source

The best water source for catfish farming is boreholes. In order to ensure a stable water supply, one or two must be dug. An overhead tank for water storage should also be installed. The pumping device must have backup facilities, and the system must not fail.

Pond Design and Construction

It is wise to hire consultant services. The success or failure of this project depends to a large extent on the ability to build a standard pond that can stand the test of time.

When designing a pond for catfish production, the main considerations are the flatness or steepness of the area and the source of water supply. For generally flat areas with wells, a dike pond can be built. The basin ponds are built for steep areas close to natural water sources. The depth of the pond is also critical because it will affect the oxygen supply of the fish.

Selecting Fish Species

Fingerlings are catfish from 0 to 4 weeks old, and juvenile catfish are catfish from 4 to 8 weeks old. When choosing fish species, factors such as market demand for fish, conservation facilities, natural fish farming facilities, adequate water sources, and effective use of resources must be considered. You can buy fish from other farms that specialize in this breeding, and choose high-yield catfish. Make sure you buy from a healthy and reliable source.

Source of feed

For commercial fish production in Nigeria, you must provide fish with high-quality and nutritious food. You can choose floating or sinking feed, sinking feed is usually larger and longer than floating feed. According to the characteristics of your farm, feed the fish once or twice a day.

As mentioned earlier, the efficiency of feed management is as important as a good water source. High-quality and well-developed catfish are the product of species, feed, and good water management. Therefore, please take some time to find a place to sell floating feed and feed formula ingredients. The closer these raw material markets are to your farm, the more money you will save on logistics. Put your farm in a place not too far from the feed market to ensure a continuous supply of inputs.


Another thing you should consider is the safety of your investment. The catfish farming industry is like a black market, and you may not be able to measure your progress until the sale is complete. In order to limit the uncertainty in the business, safety should be the most important. Find ways to protect your business from floods, theft, etc.

Gain Knowledge about Catfish

To start creating your own fish culture, you must first learn all the knowledge about this area. You can buy some books on fish farming or visit the fish farms in your area to learn their methods and experiences. Now that the Internet is so developed, you can also collect information or watch instructional videos on the Internet, or consult some fishery experts.

Once you have received enough training, start a small fish farm, preferably as a part-time project. You can do this by building several fish tanks. If this project proves to be profitable, add more capital and increase fish production.

How to Start Catfish Farming in Nigeria